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Constructive solutions on Las Palomas island in Tarifa

With this work we carry out a detailed observation of the stylistic aspects and the constructive solutions identified in the most outstanding monumental elements of the island of Las Palomas in Tarifa, which presents a novel contribution to the way this heritage site has been studied. The usual analyzes have been carried out from the perspective of historiography or archeology. There have been interesting contributions of environmental, botanical, landscape and underwater zoology aspects, but now the analysis of the monuments have been done from an artistic and engineering perspective.
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Monumental arches and vaults preserved in the castle Guzmán el Bueno in Tarifa

During the recent years, the authors of this article have participated in various assignments of archeological type, associated with the recent restorations of the Guzman el Bueno Castle in Tarifa. These efforts have permitted to comprehend with satisfying precision the evolution of the fortress to its contemporary condition, going through its history, first as a defensive construction, later being transformed into a palace, and converted into military quarters again. Perhaps, one of the most outstanding achievements of the archeological studies of the architecture implemented in the Castle has been the precise evaluation of the very first stage of its erection in the Caliphate period. The excellent state of the Umayyad stone walls, raised with ashlars laid in the “soga and tizón” bond, permits to compare this fortification with the most significant examples of the official Umayyad structures that can be found in Spain, such as the Cordoba Mosque or the remains of Madinat al-Zahra. However, the most exceptional example of the medieval Islamic period architecture is the complex of arches and vaults representing the stonework of that age, some of which were discovered during our activities in the Castle.
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The Albacar walls and the Gates of Christ and the Wind

The present work deals with one of the defensive elements of greatest interest in the medieval Ronda, both for its size and peculiar origin and for its little altered founding structure; However, to date, little progress has been made in its knowledge from the pioneering study, as in so many other things, carried out by the architect Leopoldo Torres Balbás. We therefore provide an interesting study that will give us an in-depth knowledge of this important walled area.
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The construction techniques in the Andalusian fortifications

The objective of this work is to carry out a quick overview of the evolution and development of construction systems throughout the history of al-Andalus, reflecting on the different innovations contributed by studies carried out in the last two decades. It will not follow a strict discourse in stages, but it will focus on various moments or milestones valued as decisive for understanding the whole. Within them, the early fortifications as well as those promoted by the Cordovan caliphs and Almohads will be essential. In all of them, the script will feature stonework, or in other words, the entire production cycle of the carved stone from its extraction in the quarry to its placement on site.
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The historical complex of the mount Hacho enclosure in Ceuta

The article deals with the defensive elements of the 18th century that form part of the mount Hacho enclosure in Ceuta. It is our intention to carry out a general review of the preserved remains, emphasizing their main historiographic and archaeological aspects, and also providing additional insight regarding possibilities of their protection and citizens use. The documentation prepared by the authors in the recently completed Special Protection Plan and Catalog of the Historic Complex of the Hacho de Ceuta Enclosure will be taken as the basis, commissioned by the Ministry of Development of the Autonomous City of Ceuta to the company Yamur. Arquitectura y Arqueología S.L.
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The defense system of the Gibraltar Area

A study is presented on the typology of the forts that, erected according to the plan prepared before the outbreak of World War II by the Estado Mayor del Generalísimo, form the Gibraltar Area defense system. This work includes notable, novel or poorly disclosed aspects, such as that Gibraltar Area defense system gathers Germanic influences as the Spanish tradition continues. It also proposes a classification according to different criteria to accommodate the various typology it presents and parallels are established with other European models.
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Antequera, a walled city. Analysis of materials and construction of their medieval defenses

Antuequera was a strong city and very well guarded by a defensive system refined after several centuries of reforms and evolution. Each of its construction phases responded to a very precise need, and for this used the most appropriate building system, technically and socioeconomically.
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The restoration of Almohad constructions

The use and function of built structures from various historical periods that have survived, in whole or in part, up to the present time, has been undergoing an evolution from the moment of their construction. Therefore the nature of the continuous repairs, both small and large, which the structures have experienced over the centuries, has been adjusted to the circumstances and needs of every era. Thus, the criteria used in such interventions have been defined by the function attributed at the construction time and by the available technological means. For this reason, in the analysis of the restorative interventions experienced in the Almohad buildings, three stages will be considered: those carried out in the same Almohad period, those executed after the Christian conquest, and those made from the beginning of the 20th century.
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The monumental gates in the fortifications of western Andalusia

This article presents a tour of the Andalusian monumental gates that remain in the west of the peninsula, specifically, in the current Extremadura and Toledo bordern areas, southern Portugal and western Andalusia to the vicinity of Seville. Fundamentally, these are gates to military enclosures, either alcazabas or urban walls properly said; although there are some cases of access to a religious building.
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Approach to historical buildings and heritage sites of Malaga, Tetouan, Nador, Tangier and Al Hoceima

The idea of this publication was to show the most representative buildings of the five cities, not only those that have a common historical meaning such as the Arab constructions of the old city of Malaga and their equivalents in the Moroccan medinas, or the Spanish buildings of the protectorate era, but also those without having a historical relationship like the previous ones, still represent a cultural heritage.
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The Almohad wall of Cáceres: constructive, formal and functional aspects

The present research is mainly concerned with the development of an exhaustive study on the Almohade wall structures in Cáceres. Due to a regrettable carence of both archaelogical and chronicle findings it is our intention to focus on the systematic architectural and building definition of the remarkable relics which have been preserved by means of its constructive, formal and functional characteristics. Furthermore, a study on an unknown inscription from an unquestionable Almohade procedence and still noticeable in the Torre de los Pozos, is also provided in this work. This inscription, along with other symbolic elements associated with it, represents one of the scarce propaganda testimonies analysed in militar Andalusian construction which were fostered by the Almohade authorities in charge at that time. Finally, a particular emphasis will be placed on the chronology of the wall, dating this great constructive work in Califa Ya’cub al-Mansur’s times, after his militar campaign in Extremadura in 1196.
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An approach to heritage interventions on the castle of Guzmán el Bueno from 2004-2010

This article deals with the various multidisciplinary interventions of heritage works that have been done in the castle of Guzmán el Bueno during the last years, as well as the most immediate future forecasts that are kept in mind for its final enhancement. In addition, an advance of the archaeological studies of the walls will be presented, thanks to which progress has been made in the study of the fortress evolution from its foundation to the present day.
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The coastal fort of San García (S. XVIII): Hornabeque excavation and restoration

Since the 18th century, Punta de San García has been the background of several fortification projects, given its geographical position in Algeciras Bay, opposite Gibraltar. This paper is a brief description of three kinds of military fortifications located there: a 16th century tower of vigilance, a 18th century coastal fort and a set of forts from the mid-20th century. We anticipate the first results of the archaeological and restorative intervention undertaken in 2006, on the occasion of the events commemorating the first centenary of the Algeciras Conference and the creation of the Port Works Board.
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The consolidation works of the Tower de los Maderos in Tarifa

The purpose of this article is to give news and description of the urgent consolidation works undertaken in the southern section of the walls of Tarifa, centered on the flanking tower in the southeast corner of the Aljaranda compound, known as Los Maderos, Saavedra or Comedies. The works were commissioned by the Culture Delegation of the Andalusian Government in Cádiz in December 2005, being completed in April 2006 under the main direction of the Head of the Cultural Assets Service and the architects Pedro Gurriarán Daza and Salvador García Villalobos by company Yamur. Arquitectura y Arqueología S.L.
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Medieval Almería as a fortress

The greatly depleted city taken by the Catholic Monarchs in 1489 represents the culmination of an urban process that, after periods of development and others of ruin, was born in the middle of the 9th century. For almost six hundred years, Almería will define a complex urban model, common to many cities in al-Andalus and the Islamic West, a faithful reflection of the historical circumstances and the specific needs of its population and its rulers. We are not going to deal here with the functions and services associated with cities (mudun, sing. madīna), to focus on a fundamental aspect that justifies their own existence: defensive constructions.
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